Thursday, March 20, 2014

Why Bleach Does Not Work As Well Anymore

 It takes me a couple of years to go through a gallon of bleach. We don't have that many whites to launder, and there's rarely anything that needs disinfecting. So when I bought a new gallon a couple of months ago, and it didn't have much of an odor, and left gray stains on our white laundry, I thought it must have been something wrong with the bargain brand. I called, complained, and got my money back. I was careful next to buy genuine Clorox brand Regular Bleach - but the only kind available was this "concentrated" version.

For me, this new formula - both the brand name and the bargain brand - performs poorly, compared to original chlorine bleach. It will remove SOME things, but not as many kinds of stains as it once did - and it takes longer to do that.

I started searching to find out what was going on. State child care regulatory agencies were announcing that there is no longer a uniform sanitation formula, and bleach now has to be carefully measured according to package directions; consumers were complaining (sort ratings by "Lowest" to see) that it does not clean like old bleach, that it fails to remove pet odors completely, that it is leaving brown spots on clothes, that it foams, that it leaves residue behind. Oh, and according to the State of Oregon Health Department, as well as Clorox itself,, it has a very short shelf life, of one year or less. (on the Clorox site, click "Ingredients and Safety" and arrow down to find the Shelf Life question).

The bleach companies are meanwhile in full denial mode, responding to user posts that this new product is just as good as the old formula. Mary Marlowe Leverette, the Guide for Laundry, gave the question her best shot for a good answer based on common sense, experience, and corporate advertising about the changes, then approached Clorox on behalf of her readers and shared their response:
"One of the scientists at Clorox sent along this additional information that you may find helpful:
"Clorox® recently introduced Concentrated Clorox® Regular-Bleach, a more concentrated version of its namesake liquid bleach. The New Concentrated Clorox® Regular-Bleach contains the same sodium hypochlorite bleach active that consumers have come to know through generations of use, just with less water so the product is more concentrated..

I am no chemist, but here is what I was able to piece together:

 The chlorine bleach industry switched away from free-flowing chlorine for security and safety reasons after Sept 11th 2001, and Clorox notes they completed this transfer to a new form of chlorine-type bleach in 2011 called sodium hypochlorite.  Information on why, two years later, another change meant that suddenly all "bleach" was no longer called "chlorine bleach" and also no longer works, was hard to find. I ran across a uniform press release on several sites about municipal drinking water treatment facilities:

"Regulatory Considerations
The following are the current or proposed regulatory actions or regulations for each of the three contaminants or byproducts mentioned above:
1. Bromate -- The maximum level of bromine allowed in sodium hypochlorite is expected to be reduced by January, 2013 to around a level of 39 ppm. Currently, 69 ppm of bromate is the Maximum Contaminant Level allowed in sodium hypochlorite. Since bromate is produced in the ozonation process, ozone's use in the treatment process could be reconsidered."

So.  Previously, sodium hypochlorite bleach also contained bromine, which is a strong bleaching chemical, according to Wikipedia:
"It bonds easily with many elements and has a strong bleaching action."
""Dissolving bromine in alkaline solution gives a mixture of bromide and hypobromite...."
"This hypobromite is responsible for the bleaching abilities of bromide solutions. Warming of these solutions causes the disproportion reaction of the hypobromite to give bromate, a strong oxidising agent very similar to chlorate."  [Edit 10/21/18 to link to March 2014 version of Wikipedia article, contemporary to when this article was written. The current Wikipedia article omits vast amounts of information about bromines - read history of edits to learn more. ]

These bromines have a great ability to remove rust, are more effective than chlorine in alkaline water,  and were generally a strong booster for the old bleach. Without them, it sounds like even an increased concentration of bleach will not be as effective for those of us who have alkaline water or who have a lot of iron in the water.

Now,  I don't like over-regulation, but it is good to reduce anything that can permanently contaminate drinking water. Good for Clorox and Wegmans and the EPA for making the best product they can! What I don't understand is why the manufacturers have not been transparent about WHY they stopped making chlorine bleach and started making something they like to call "Concentrated Regular Bleach".  What harm could there possibly be in letting the world know that the EPA changed the rules to limit bromine/bromate, and thus the formula for household bleach had to change too? Why try to convince consumers that the only change was to "concentrate" it? Wouldn't  it be better to own the changes and help those customers who are experiencing challenges?

Clorox never says that regulation or product safety has anything to do with the changes. Instead, they say:
  "With so much power in one bottle of bleach, some worry about its environmental impact. ..."
 "In 2012, our namesake Clorox Bleach product will convert to a 33 percent more concentrated formula. This will help reduce the overall carbon footprint associated with the lifecycle consumption of bleach. The end product is a more convenient consumer product that is also better for the environment."

Everything in that statement is true. But is it "the truth" as in the primary rationale for an entire industry completely reformulating a product that is essential to health and sanitation nationwide?

When I finally found the Clorox webpage on old formula "Regular Bleach Non-Concentrated", they still kept silent about the regulatory requirements, and instead had this to say:
"How is Clorox® Regular Bleach different from Clorox® Regular-Bleach1, concentrated?

"We’ve done a great deal of research to ensure we are meeting consumer’s needs. In the Clorox® Regular-Bleach1, concentrated, the new Clorox® Bleach bottle will be easier to handle and easier to use in high-efficiency washing machines, which have built-in bleach dispensers. In addition, the concentrated formula will provide improved whitening on clothes and be able to kill viruses like norovirus on hard surfaces. And because the size of the bottle will be smaller, we can significantly reduce the amount of water used in bleach and the amount of packaging used, which is better for the environment."
- See more at: "

The Wegman's Bleach folks talked about how people had been using too little bleach, so the concentrated formula was to make up for that.
"The rationale is that most people doing laundry these days do not use enough bleach; they even have a name for it, “underdosing.”  One reason given is that many detergents these days have the addition of bleach alternatives, so consumers wanting whiter whites think they’re already covered or think they don’t have to use as much bleach.  Typically, consumers have used ½ cup of bleach when the package directions say to use ¾ cup.  And the majority of High Efficiency washing machines have a pull out tray for bleach, which measures half a cup.  So for all those reasons, the companies decided to concentrate their formula..."  I'm sure every word of that is quite true and honest, but was that the whole truth about an industry-wide change that coincided with these new environmental regulations?

The Wikipedia  article for Clorox reads in a way to make it appear that there have not been any changes to formulation in recent history - despite the fact that even the US Government via the EPA has referred to these formerly standard products as Chlorine Bleach:
 "Sometimes confused with chlorine bleach, household bleach has a completely different chemistry. Household bleach is a chemically-combined oxidizing agent that is used to remove or lighten color. Clorox bleach is derived from sodium chloride — common table salt. Clorox produces household bleach by bubbling chlorine into a solution of water and sodium hydroxide. During this process, the chlorine is converted to a sodium hypochlorite solution.[19] The ingredients in Clorox bleach are water, sodium hypochlorite (used to whiten and kill bacteria), sodium chloride, sodium carbonate (removes alcohol and grease stains), sodium chlorate, sodium hydroxide (removes soils that are fatty, oily, or acidic), and sodium polyacrylate.[20]"
In fact, it seems that the concentration is a way to control the  rate of disintegration that happens to the new ingredients. From Wikipedia's article on Sodium Hypochlorite:
"Bleaching:  Household bleach is, in general, a solution containing 3-8% sodium hypochlorite and 0.01-0.05% sodium hydroxide; the sodium hydroxide is used to slow the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate.[10] "
And from the State of Oregon: "Bleach at high concentrations degrades fairly rapidly (16% lasts only minutes), but slows as the concentration becomes lower. Bleach at 5.25% will probably last several months without too much deterioration. It continues to deteriorate slowly to about 3%, where the speed of deterioration virtually stops."

Not being well versed in chemistry, I don't really understand how all of this works together, but I have learned enough to surmise that this "concentration" of the product probably has less to do with saving shelf space than it does with: (1)increasing the "rate of decay" of the product ( A bottle of old formula chlorine bleach would last indefinitely. A bottle of the new product will be much weaker in 6 months than it was when it was made); and (2) making up for the loss of bleaching action caused by the bromines.

In a nutshell:
* No, you haven't suddenly forgotten how bleach used to work. Bleach is no longer bleach and it does not work like the kind we and our parents and grandparents used.
* The changes were probably necessary, as they also apply to the chlorination process used for public water supplies, thus helping our drinking water from becoming saturated with chemicals that are harmful to us.
* For some reason, the PR departments in the industry decided against discussing regulatory requirements and actual environmental improvements in informing consumers about the change in formula. 
* And they have held tight to that refusal to name the EPA as a player in these changes, and continue to avoid discussing this information with the consumer.
* Bleach can still accomplish some tasks. We just have to learn how to use this new product. Clorox and Wegman's are still trusted brands, and both have directions on how to use them for disinfecting surfaces and water, as well as how to use them in laundry.
* This is a good time to learn about old ways of bleaching garments and linens: hanging them in the sun, for starters, will brighten whites and make them smell good too.

Textual sources that may be useful to you:
"FAQ About Bleach Solutions
What are the changes in bleach concentrations?
The concentration of bleach solutions sold in stores has changed throughout the country. The new, stronger bleach solution available in many stores is now 8.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The former concentrated bleach (5.25%-6% sodium hypochlorite) is no longer available at many stores. The 8.25% solution is being produced by both brand name companies as well as companies that produce generic products. Many of these products are now EPA-registered products as well. Because of the variety of products available, it is more important than ever to check the label on your bleach bottle to determine the concentration.

"How long does regular household bleach last on the shelf?
Bleach at high concentrations degrades fairly rapidly (16% lasts only minutes), but slows as the concentration becomes lower. Bleach at 5.25% will probably last several months without too much deterioration. It continues to deteriorate slowly to about 3%, where the speed of deterioration virtually stops. According to Clorox™, the amount of hypochlorite that is added to their bleach depends on the season in which it is manufactured, because temperature affects the decomposition rate of sodium hypochlorite. So, more hypochlorite is added to bleach made in the summer than in cooler months. Clorox aims to maintain a constant hypochlorite concentration for at least six months after the manufacturing date, assuming the bleach is stored around 70°F. It takes about 4-8 weeks from the time chlorine bleach is made to when it gets to a store so that you can buy it to take home. This leaves you 3-5 months where the bleach is at the effectiveness level stated on its label.
(Last updated on Monday, January 27, 2014)

"Chlorine Bleach:  What is it?

"Did you know that a pesticide is added to your washing machine to help keep your white clothes white? This pesticide is also found in many household cleaning products that contain a "disinfectant" to kill germs. And it is found in household products used to clean mold and mildew from your shower or tub. Can you guess what this pesticide is? Chlorine Bleach!

"You wouldn't think that ordinary chlorine bleach is a pesticide - but it is. Because it kills bacteria- and viruses it is called a disinfectant or an antimicrobial pesticide. And because it kills fungi and molds it is also known as a fungicide.

"If you are responsible for doing laundry or other types of cleaning as some of your chores around the house, you may be using liquid chlorine bleach to do the job. If so, you need to be sure to always "Read the Label First" to know how to properly use this product and for safety information. Also, be sure your parents know what household products you are using. They can make sure you use them safely

"What's in it?

"Standard household bleach contains the chemical sodium hypochlorite.
What health and safety things do you need to think about with chlorine bleach?

"Liquid bleach in the bottle is a 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. That means 5.25% of the liquid is the chemical sodium hypochlorite and the rest is mostly water. The number 5.25% tells you how strong the concentration of a chemical is. Look at the labels of other household cleaning products that contain bleach in your home. Some contain sodium hypochlorite or chlorine bleach in concentrations of .7%, 1.8% and 2.4%.

"Never mix a chlorine bleach with any other household or cleaning products. Doing so can result in different types of harmful acids being formed. Poisonous gasses can also be released that will cause very serious breathing problems.

"Always be careful when using chlorine bleach. Because it comes in 1 gallon jugs the container can be a little hard to handle. Spills and splashes happen. Not only will the bleach damage your clothing but it is irritating to your skin and can cause serious damage to your eyes, even blindness. As with any chemical, your exposure to it is important to know.

Tuesday, March 11, 2014

Growing Tomatoes From Seed, Part Three: Getting Their Second Leaves - and Their First Fertilizer

This year, I set myself the task of learning how to grow tomatoes, from seed to harvest. I've never had any luck with them, but others succeed, so surely I can figure them out too.  If you want to follow along, here are the links to Part One and Part Two of our thrilling adventures in Tomato Land.

When I planted my sprouted tomato seeds, I put them into Dixie cups in new potting soil that supposedly had fertilizer in it, so I did not think I would need to fertilize the seedlings until they had grown a bunch of

I had two groups under the lights: the first, large batch that I had put in baggies about Feb 15th to sprout, and three other varieties that I ordered late, and didn't get sprouted until about 10 days later.  As of today, those last three seem to have caught up with the first batch, and about as many are sprouting second leaves on all of them.

The first batch grew like champs for a while - most sprouted within a week. I planted the ones that had not sprouted along with their precocious neighbors and most of those finally stretched and woke up too. I moved
them into little cups and they bounced right up and looked strong.

But then it was like time stood still. They reached a point and just stopped. I thought it might be a water issue, since the air and weather are so very dry here, so I stepped up their watering schedule. They still didn't improve.

Many of them started turning yellowish. So I read my little guide from Park Seeds, which said to fertilize them, and I read my fertilizer label, which listed a dilution for seedlings, and fertilized them.

The next day they were not improved - but they were no worse - so I diluted a half tsp of ammonia in a gallon of water and gave them that. (Not the whole gallon, but they each had a drink.)

Still no change the following day. So yesterday I watered them with fertilizer water again, just drenched them. FINALLY, today they are looking greener and starting to move forward with their second leaves.

Now to keep watching them. If it ever stops freezing at night, I will move them back into the sunny, South-facing laundry room, where they can get daylight. But for now, we are still alternating between 80 degrees one day, 30 degrees that night and 50 the next day. Springtime in Texas! LOL!

 Tune in again in a couple of weeks for the next episode. :-)

UPDATE: The results were fantastic!  Here are photos of some of the harvest!

Monday, March 10, 2014

Letting History Talk For Fun: Reenactments and Historical Demonstration

 In the way these things usually happen, I accidentally started myself down the road into a whole new hobby a few months ago when I did a letterpress printing demonstration in period costume. They say historical reenacting is one of the fastest growing hobbies in the world, as people engage personally in their favorite time period. Meet the newest wannabe American Civil War era civilian reenactor!

Late last summer, I heard about a museum-hosted event in nearby Stephenville, Texas: "By Gone Days on the Bosque". They were looking for demonstrators of old time crafts and life for the annual one-day fundraiser celebrating the post-civil-war period in this portion of Erath County along the Bosque River. Those were true Wild West Days, when the citizens really were  cowboys, outlaws, Indians, settlers, renegades, notorious lawmen, cattle ranchers, rustlers, fence cutters, farmers, and sheep herders.

I offered to show how a wanted poster would have been made, using wood type and my little portable press. They had never had a Printer and welcomed me. My sister served on the board of a local museum in her town, and lent me a dress she had made from a period-correct pattern. She also made me a "pinner" apron to wear. I didn't have a bonnet so I used a hair net and a doily gathered with ribbon to cover my hair. Given the short time frame, I cobbled together a fairly passable outfit (Marjorie, I have not forgotten that I do need a corset :-) ).

I went to the experts in letterpress history: the LETPRESS email list, and got wonderful advice on what to wear and how to approach it. They especially recommended the book "Newspapering in the Old West", filled with photos and detailed information that is essential for accuracy. It is one thing to tell people that women were actively employed in the printing trade, and even owned and published newspapers during that time, but showing photos substantiates it, important proofs for all of us who were educated in the myth that American women "didn't work" before the feminist movement of the 1960s.

I have attended reenactment events before as a tourist, been a vendor at antique shows, and have demonstrated printing as an art form and a modern day craft. So I expected to enjoy myself. I had the BEST time!!!! Paul's back was killing him (two days later was when we learned it really was killing him and the surgeon saved his life - see previous post for details), so I had to go by myself, but it was still loads of fun.

Since then, I have been absorbed in caring for Paul as he recovers, and have been reading up on Historical Reenacting as it plays out in Texas and considering how I can take part. Most groups accessible to me focus on the last half of the nineteenth century (Civil War, Wild West, Indian Wars). Although far from expert, my knowledge about printing and merchandise in that era would make it easiest to take on an impression of a civilian merchant ("sutler") and Job Printer.

So I guess, now,  I am nearing the stage of identifying people in near-by groups to learn about their focus and what kind of impressions their group needs, to see if any would be a good fit. It will still be quite a while before I have freedom to attend events or take an active role. In the meantime I can keep studying, read the various forums, prepare myself and some materials, and start putting together a nice, authentic costume.

Now I am wondering: is there anything I need to know that I don't know I need to know? ;-)

Sunday, March 2, 2014

First Amendment Quote of the Day - Texas Declaration of Independence - March 2, 2014

Among the reasons listed in Texas Declaration of Independence was freedom of religion:   

"...[The Mexican nation] denies us the right of worshipping the Almighty according to the dictates of our own conscience, by the support of a national religion, calculated to promote the temporal interest of its human functionaries, rather than the glory of the true and living God....

                   Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico, March 2, 1836  (Among the many conditions and causes that resulted finally in Texas' Declaration of Independence from Mexico, the most serious was Santa Ana's dissolution of the Consitution under which the Texians had established themselves as Mexican Citizens. Without that Constitution, Santa Ana became a dictator, declaring new laws or refusing to enforce existing laws.)


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